24
2012
04

Nginx 1.2.x + PHP 5.3.15(FPM)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第7版)[修改]

 [文章原作者:张宴 文章编辑:小坏 本文版本:v7.0 最后修改:2012年4月24日 转载请注明原文链接:http://blog.94qy.com/archives/144 ]  前言:本文是我重编辑张宴“Nginx + PHP(FastCGI)”Web服务器的第6篇文章。本系列文章作为国内最早详细介绍 Nginx + PHP 安装、配置、使用的资料之一,为推动 Nginx 在国内的发展产生了积极的作用。本文可能不断更新小版本,请记住原文链接“http://blog.94qy.com/archives/144”,获取最新内容。第7篇文章主要介绍了Nginx 1.2.0新的平滑重启方式,将PHP升级到了5.3.15,修正了PEAR问题。另将MySQL 5.5.3升级到了5.5.23,配置文件变更较大。、     Nginx ("engine x") 是一个高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理服务器,也是一个 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理服务器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 为俄罗斯访问量第二的 Rambler.ru 站点开发的,它已经在该站点运行超过三年了。Igor 将源代码以类BSD许可证的形式发布。   Nginx 超越 Apache 的高性能和稳定性,使得国内使用 Nginx 作为 Web 服务器的网站也越来越多,其中包括新浪博客新浪播客网易新闻腾讯网搜狐博客等门户网站频道,六间房56.com等视频分享网站,Discuz!官方论坛水木社区等知名论坛,盛大在线金山逍遥网等网络游戏网站,豆瓣人人网YUPOO相册金山爱词霸迅雷在线等新兴Web 2.0网站。 Nginx 的官方中文维基:http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxChs   在高并发连接的情况下,Nginx是Apache服务器不错的替代品。Nginx同时也可以作为7层负载均衡服务器来使用。根据我的测试结果,Nginx 0.8.46 + PHP 5.2.14 (FastCGI) 可以承受3万以上的并发连接数,相当于同等环境下Apache的10倍。   根据我的经验,4GB内存的服务器+Apache(prefork模式)一般只能处理3000个并发连接,因为它们将占用3GB以上的内存,还得为系统预留1GB的内存。我曾经就有两台Apache服务器,因为在配置文件中设置的MaxClients为4000,当Apache并发连接数达到3800时,导致服务器内存和Swap空间用满而崩溃。   而这台 Nginx 0.8.46 + PHP 5.2.14 (FastCGI) 服务器在3万并发连接下,开启的10个Nginx进程消耗150M内存(15M*10=150M),开启的64个php-cgi进程消耗1280M内存(20M*64=1280M),加上系统自身消耗的内存,总共消耗不到2GB内存。如果服务器内存较小,完全可以只开启25个php-cgi进程,这样php-cgi消耗的总内存数才500M。由于新版本的PHP-FPM采用了动态进程控制所以Nginx1.2.0+PHP5.3.10(FPM)可以承受更高的访问量。   在3万并发连接下,访问Nginx 0.8.46 + PHP 5.2.14 (FastCGI) 服务器的PHP程序,仍然速度飞快。下图为Nginx的状态监控页面,显示的活动连接数为28457(关于Nginx的监控页配置,会在本文接下来所给出的Nginx配置文件中写明): 我生产环境下的两台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服务器,跑多个一般复杂的纯PHP动态程序,单台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服务器跑PHP动态程序的处理能力已经超过“700次请求/秒”,相当于每天可以承受6000万(700*60*60*24=60480000)的访问量(更多信息见此),而服务器的系统负载也不高:  2009年9月3日下午2:30,金山游戏《剑侠情缘网络版叁》临时维护1小时(http://kefu.xoyo.com/gonggao/jx3/2009-09-03/750438.shtml),大量玩家上官网,论坛、评论、客服等动态应用Nginx服务器集群,每台服务器的Nginx活动连接数达到2.8万,这是原笔者遇到的Nginx生产环境最高并发值。  下面是用100个并发连接分别去压生产环境中同一负载均衡器VIP下、提供相同服务的两台服务器,一台为Nginx,另一台为Apache,Nginx每秒处理的请求数是Apache的两倍多,Nginx服务器的系统负载、CPU使用率远低于Apache:   你可以将连接数开到10000~30000,去压Nginx和Apache上的phpinfo.php,这是用浏览器访问Nginx上的phpinfo.php一切正常,而访问Apache服务器的phpinfo.php,则是该页无法显示。4G内存的服务器,即使再优化,Apache也很难在“webbench -c 30000 -t 60 http://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/phpinfo.php”的压力情况下正常访问,而调整参数优化后的Nginx可以。   webbench 下载地址:http://blog.s135.com/post/288/   注意:webbench 做压力测试时,该软件自身也会消耗CPU和内存资源,为了测试准确,请将 webbench 安装在别的服务器上。
  测试结果:##### Nginx + PHP ##### [root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php Webbench - Simple Web Benchmark 1.5 Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software. Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php 100 clients, running 30 sec. Speed=102450 pages/min, 16490596 bytes/sec. Requests: 51225 susceed, 0 failed. top - 14:06:13 up 27 days, 2:25, 2 users, load average: 14.57, 9.89, 6.51 Tasks: 287 total, 4 running, 283 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie Cpu(s): 49.9% us, 6.7% sy, 0.0% ni, 41.4% id, 1.1% wa, 0.1% hi, 0.8% si Mem: 6230016k total, 2959468k used, 3270548k free, 635992k buffers Swap: 2031608k total, 3696k used, 2027912k free, 1231444k cached  测试结果:##### Apache + PHP ##### [root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php Webbench - Simple Web Benchmark 1.5 Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software. Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php 100 clients, running 30 sec. Speed=102450 pages/min, 16490596 bytes/sec. Requests: 51225 susceed, 0 failed. top - 14:06:13 up 27 days,  2:25,  2 users,  load average: 14.57, 9.89, 6.51 Tasks: 287 total,   4 running, 283 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie Cpu(s): 49.9% us,  6.7% sy,  0.0% ni, 41.4% id,  1.1% wa,  0.1% hi,  0.8% si Mem:   6230016k total,  2959468k used,  3270548k free,   635992k buffers Swap:  2031608k total,     3696k used,  2027912k free,  1231444k cached
  为什么Nginx的性能要比Apache高得多?这得益于Nginx使用了最新的epoll(Linux 2.6内核)和kqueue(freebsd)网络I/O模型,而Apache则使用的是传统的select模型。目前Linux下能够承受高并发访问的Squid、Memcached都采用的是epoll网络I/O模型。   处理大量的连接的读写,Apache所采用的select网络I/O模型非常低效。下面用一个比喻来解析Apache采用的select模型和Nginx采用的epoll模型进行之间的区别:   假设你在大学读书,住的宿舍楼有很多间房间,你的朋友要来找你。select版宿管大妈就会带着你的朋友挨个房间去找,直到找到你为止。而epoll版宿管大妈会先记下每位同学的房间号,你的朋友来时,只需告诉你的朋友你住在哪个房间即可,不用亲自带着你的朋友满大楼找人。如果来了10000个人,都要找自己住这栋楼的同学时,select版和epoll版宿管大妈,谁的效率更高,不言自明。同理,在高并发服务器中,轮询I/O是最耗时间的操作之一,select和epoll的性能谁的性能更高,同样十分明了。   安装步骤:   (系统要求:Linux 2.6+ 内核,本文中的Linux操作系统为CentOS 5.3,另在RedHat AS4上也安装成功)   一、获取相关开源程序:   1、【适用CentOS操作系统】利用CentOS Linux系统自带的yum命令安装、升级所需的程序库(RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包,进行安装): [sourcecode language="bash"]sudo -s LANG=C yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers bison perl-CPAN[/sourcecode]   2、【适用RedHat操作系统】RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包(事先可通过类似“rpm -qa | grep libjpeg”的命令查看所需的RPM包是否存在,通常是“xxx-devel”不存在,需要安装)。RedHat可以直接利用CentOS的RPM包安装,以下是RPM包下载网址:   ①、RedHat AS4 & CentOS 4   http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/i386/CentOS/RPMS/   http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/x86_64/CentOS/RPMS/   ②、RedHat AS5 & CentOS 5   http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/i386/CentOS/   http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/x86_64/CentOS/   ③、RPM包搜索网站   http://rpm.pbone.net/   http://www.rpmfind.net/   ④、RedHat AS4 系统环境,通常情况下缺少的支持包安装:              1.I386系统 [sourcecode language="bash"] wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/libjpeg-devel-6b-33.i386.rpm rpm -ivh libjpeg-devel-6b-33.i386.rpm wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.i386.rpm rpm -ivh freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.i386.rpm wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.i386.rpm rpm -ivh libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.i386.rpm[/sourcecode] Ⅱ、x86_64 系统 [sourcecode language="bash"]wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/libjpeg-devel-6b-33.x86_64.rpm rpm -ivh libjpeg-devel-6b-33.x86_64.rpm wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.x86_64.rpm rpm -ivh freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.x86_64.rpm wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.x86_64.rpm rpm -ivh libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.x86_64.rpm [/sourcecode] 3、【适用CentOS、RedHat及其它Linux操作系统】下载程序源码包:   本文中提到的所有开源软件为截止到2012年4月24日的最新稳定版。   ①、从软件的官方网站下载: [sourcecode language="bash"]mkdir -p /data0/software cd /data0/software wget http://www.nginx.org/download/nginx-1.2.0.tar.gz wget <a href="http://cn2.php.net/get/php-5.3.15.tar.gz/from/this/mirror">http://cn2.php.net/get/php-5.3.15.tar.gz/from/this/mirror</a> wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.5/mysql-5.5.23.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.cs.pu.edu.tw/ wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.14.tar.gz wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0" wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0" wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.6.tgz wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0" wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-8.30.tar.gz wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/eaccelerator/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2 wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-3.0.1.tgz wget http://www.cmake.org/files/v2.8/cmake-2.8.8.tar.gz[/sourcecode]   二、安装PHP 5.3.10(FastCGI模式)   1、编译安装PHP 5.3.10所需的支持库: [sourcecode language="bash"]tar zxvf libiconv-1.14.tar.gz cd libiconv-1.14/ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local make make install cd ../ tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/ ./configure make make install /sbin/ldconfig cd libltdl/ ./configure --enable-ltdl-install make make install cd ../../ tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz cd mhash-0.9.9.9/ ./configure make make install cd ../ ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2 ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 ln -s /usr/local/bin/libmcrypt-config /usr/bin/libmcrypt-config tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz cd mcrypt-2.6.8/ /sbin/ldconfig ./configure make make install cd ../ [/sourcecode] 2、编译安装MySQL 5.5.23 由于MYSQL5.5.10以上版本采用Cmake编译 Cmake [sourcecode language="bash"]tar-zxvf cmake-2.8.8.tar.gz cd cmake-2.8.8 ./bootstrap make make install[/sourcecode] MYSQL 5.5.23 [sourcecode language="bash"]tar zxvf mysql-5.5.23.tar.gz cd mysql-5.5.23 cmake . \ -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ \ -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \ -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \ -DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS:STRING=utf8,gbk \ -DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \ -DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \ -DWITH_READLINE=1 \ -DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1 \ -DMYSQL_DATADIR=/MySql-Date \ -DWITH_EMBEDDED_SERVER=1 \ -DWITH_SSL=system make make install chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql cd .. [/sourcecode]  附:以下为附加步骤,如果你想在这台服务器上运行MySQL数据库,则执行以下几步。如果你只是希望让PHP支持MySQL扩展库,能够连接其他服务器上的MySQL数据库,那么,以下两步无需执行。   ①、创建MySQL数据库存放目录 [sourcecode language="bash"]mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/data/ mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/ mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/ chown -R mysql:mysql /data0/mysql/ [/sourcecode]       ②、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表: [sourcecode language="bash"]/usr/local/webserver/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db \ --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf \ --basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql \ --datadir=/Mysql-Date/data \ --user=mysql[/sourcecode]        ③、创建my.cnf配置文件:   [sourcecode language="bash"] vi /etc/my.cnf[/sourcecode]  输入以下内容:
[client] character-set-server = utf8 port = 3306 socket = /tmp/mysql.sock [mysqld] character-set-server = utf8 replicate-ignore-db = mysql replicate-ignore-db = test replicate-ignore-db = information_schema user = mysql port = 3306 socket = /tmp/mysql.sock basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql datadir = /data0/mysql/3306/data log-error = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql_error.log pid-file = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql.pid open_files_limit = 10240 back_log = 600 max_connections = 5000 max_connect_errors = 6000 table_cache = 614 external-locking = FALSE max_allowed_packet = 32M sort_buffer_size = 1M join_buffer_size = 1M thread_cache_size = 300 #thread_concurrency = 8 query_cache_size = 512M query_cache_limit = 2M query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k default-storage-engine = MyISAM thread_stack = 192K transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED tmp_table_size = 246M max_heap_table_size = 246M long_query_time = 3 log-slave-updates log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/binlog binlog_cache_size = 4M binlog_format = MIXED max_binlog_cache_size = 8M max_binlog_size = 1G relay-log-index = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog relay-log-info-file = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog relay-log = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog expire_logs_days = 30 key_buffer_size = 256M read_buffer_size = 1M read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G myisam_repair_threads = 1 myisam_recover interactive_timeout = 120 wait_timeout = 120 skip-name-resolve #master-connect-retry = 10 slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396 #master-host = 192.168.1.2 #master-user = username #master-password = password #master-port = 3306 server-id = 1 innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:256M:autoextend innodb_file_io_threads = 4 innodb_thread_concurrency = 8 innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2 innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M innodb_log_file_size = 128M innodb_log_files_in_group = 3 innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90 innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120 innodb_file_per_table = 0 #log-slow-queries = /data0/mysql/3306/slow.log #long_query_time = 10 [mysqldump] quick max_allowed_packet = 32M
       ④、复制mysql管理脚本 [sourcecode language="bash"]cp mysql-5.5.23/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysqld[/sourcecode]        ⑥、启动MySQL: [sourcecode language="bash"]/etc/init.d/mysqld start[/sourcecode]  3、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式) [sourcecode language="bash"]tar zxvf php-5.3.15.tar.gz cd php-5.3.15</pre> &nbsp; ./configure \ --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php \ --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc \ --with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql \ --with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config \ --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local \ --with-freetype-dir \ --with-jpeg-dir \ --with-png-dir \ --with-zlib \ --with-libxml-dir=/usr \ --enable-xml \ --disable-rpath \ --enable-safe-mode \ --enable-bcmath \ --enable-shmop \ --enable-sysvsem \ --enable-inline-optimization \ --with-curl \ --with-curlwrappers \ --enable-mbregex \ --enable-fpm \ --enable-mbstring \ --with-mcrypt \ --with-gd \ --enable-gd-native-ttf \ --with-openssl \ --with-mhash \ --enable-pcntl \ --enable-sockets \ --with-ldap \ --with-ldap-sasl \ --with-xmlrpc \ --enable-zip \ --enable-soap \ --enable-ftp make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv' make install cp php.ini-production /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini cp /usr/local/src/php-5.3.15/sapi/fpm/init.d.php-fpm /etc/init.d/php-fpm chmod +x /etc/init.d/php-fpm cd ../ [/sourcecode]      4、编译安装PHP5扩展模块   [sourcecode language="bash"]tar zxvf memcache-2.2.6.tgz cd memcache-2.2.6/ /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize ./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config make make install cd ../</pre> &nbsp; tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2 cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1/ /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize ./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config make make install cd ../ tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/ /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize ./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config --with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql make make install cd ../ tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/ ./configure make make install cd ../ tar zxvf imagick-3.0.1.tgz cd imagick-3.0.1/ /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize ./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config make make install cd ../ [/sourcecode]
部分用户编译ImageMagick会出现: BEGIN failed--compilation aborted at Makefile.PL line 24. make[1]: *** [PerlMagick/Makefile] Error 2 make[1]: Leaving directory `/root/ImageMagick-6.4.9-10' make: *** [all] Error 2 错误 解决方法如下: make -k -i install 或yum -y install perl-CPAN
 5、修改php.ini文件   手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"   修改为extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20090626/"   并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:   extension = "memcache.so"   extension = "pdo_mysql.so"   extension = "imagick.so"   再查找output_buffering = Off   修改为output_buffering = On   再查找; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0   修改为cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件类型错误解析漏洞。   6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP: [sourcecode language="bash"]mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini [/sourcecode] 按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:   [sourcecode language="bash"][eaccelerator] zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20090626/eaccelerator.so" eaccelerator.shm_size="64" eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache" eaccelerator.enable="1" eaccelerator.optimizer="1" eaccelerator.check_mtime="1" eaccelerator.debug="0" eaccelerator.filter="" eaccelerator.shm_max="0" eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600" eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600" eaccelerator.shm_only="0" eaccelerator.compress="1" eaccelerator.compress_level="9" [/sourcecode]  7、创建www用户和组,以及供blog.94qy.com和www.94qy.com两个虚拟主机使用的目录: [sourcecode language="bash"]/usr/sbin/groupadd www /usr/sbin/useradd -g www www mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www[/sourcecode]    8、创建php-fpm配置文件     [sourcecode language="bash"]vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf [/sourcecode] 输入以下内容: [sourcecode language="xml"] ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; FPM Configuration ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; All relative paths in this configuration file are relative to PHP's install ; prefix (/usr/local/webserver/php). This prefix can be dynamicaly changed by using the ; '-p' argument from the command line. ; Include one or more files. If glob(3) exists, it is used to include a bunch of ; files from a glob(3) pattern. This directive can be used everywhere in the ; file. ; Relative path can also be used. They will be prefixed by: ; - the global prefix if it's been set (-p arguement) ; - /usr/local/webserver/php otherwise ;include=etc/fpm.d/*.conf ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; Global Options ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; [global] ; Pid file ; Note: the default prefix is /usr/local/webserver/php/var ; Default Value: none pid = run/php-fpm.pid ; Error log file ; If it's set to "syslog", log is sent to syslogd instead of being written ; in a local file. ; Note: the default prefix is /usr/local/webserver/php/var ; Default Value: log/php-fpm.log error_log = log/php-fpm.log ; syslog_facility is used to specify what type of program is logging the ; message. This lets syslogd specify that messages from different facilities ; will be handled differently. ; See syslog(3) for possible values (ex daemon equiv LOG_DAEMON) ; Default Value: daemon ;syslog.facility = daemon ; syslog_ident is prepended to every message. If you have multiple FPM ; instances running on the same server, you can change the default value ; which must suit common needs. ; Default Value: php-fpm ;syslog.ident = php-fpm ; Log level ; Possible Values: alert, error, warning, notice, debug ; Default Value: notice ;log_level = notice ; If this number of child processes exit with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS within the time ; interval set by emergency_restart_interval then FPM will restart. A value ; of '0' means 'Off'. ; Default Value: 0 ;emergency_restart_threshold = 0 ; Interval of time used by emergency_restart_interval to determine when ; a graceful restart will be initiated. This can be useful to work around ; accidental corruptions in an accelerator's shared memory. ; Available Units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays) ; Default Unit: seconds ; Default Value: 0 ;emergency_restart_interval = 0 ; Time limit for child processes to wait for a reaction on signals from master. ; Available units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays) ; Default Unit: seconds ; Default Value: 0 ;process_control_timeout = 0 ; The maximum number of processes FPM will fork. This has been design to control ; the global number of processes when using dynamic PM within a lot of pools. ; Use it with caution. ; Note: A value of 0 indicates no limit ; Default Value: 0 ; process.max = 128 ; Send FPM to background. Set to 'no' to keep FPM in foreground for debugging. ; Default Value: yes ;daemonize = yes ; Set open file descriptor rlimit for the master process. ; Default Value: system defined value ;rlimit_files = 1024 ; Set max core size rlimit for the master process. ; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0 ; Default Value: system defined value ;rlimit_core = 0 ; Specify the event mechanism FPM will use. The following is available: ; - select (any POSIX os) ; - poll (any POSIX os) ; - epoll (linux >= 2.5.44) ; - kqueue (FreeBSD >= 4.1, OpenBSD >= 2.9, NetBSD >= 2.0) ; - /dev/poll (Solaris >= 7) ; - port (Solaris >= 10) ; Default Value: not set (auto detection) ; events.mechanism = epoll ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; Pool Definitions ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; Multiple pools of child processes may be started with different listening ; ports and different management options. The name of the pool will be ; used in logs and stats. There is no limitation on the number of pools which ; FPM can handle. Your system will tell you anyway :) ; Start a new pool named 'www'. ; the variable $pool can we used in any directive and will be replaced by the ; pool name ('www' here) [www] ; Per pool prefix ; It only applies on the following directives: ; - 'slowlog' ; - 'listen' (unixsocket) ; - 'chroot' ; - 'chdir' ; - 'php_values' ; - 'php_admin_values' ; When not set, the global prefix (or /usr/local/webserver/php) applies instead. ; Note: This directive can also be relative to the global prefix. ; Default Value: none ;prefix = /path/to/pools/$pool ; Unix user/group of processes ; Note: The user is mandatory. If the group is not set, the default user's group ; will be used. user = www group = www ; The address on which to accept FastCGI requests. ; Valid syntaxes are: ; 'ip.add.re.ss:port' - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific address on ; a specific port; ; 'port' - to listen on a TCP socket to all addresses on a ; specific port; ; '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket. ; Note: This value is mandatory. listen = 127.0.0.1:9000 ; Set listen(2) backlog. A value of '-1' means unlimited. ; Default Value: 128 (-1 on FreeBSD and OpenBSD) ;listen.backlog = -1 ; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write ; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server. Many ; BSD-derived systems allow connections regardless of permissions. ; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user ; mode is set to 0666 ;listen.owner = nobody ;listen.group = nobody ;listen.mode = 0666 ; List of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients which are allowed to connect. ; Equivalent to the FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment variable in the original ; PHP FCGI (5.2.2+). Makes sense only with a tcp listening socket. Each address ; must be separated by a comma. If this value is left blank, connections will be ; accepted from any ip address. ; Default Value: any ;listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1 ; Choose how the process manager will control the number of child processes. ; Possible Values: ; static - a fixed number (pm.max_children) of child processes; ; dynamic - the number of child processes are set dynamically based on the ; following directives. With this process management, there will be ; always at least 1 children. ; pm.max_children - the maximum number of children that can ; be alive at the same time. ; pm.start_servers - the number of children created on startup. ; pm.min_spare_servers - the minimum number of children in 'idle' ; state (waiting to process). If the number ; of 'idle' processes is less than this ; number then some children will be created. ; pm.max_spare_servers - the maximum number of children in 'idle' ; state (waiting to process). If the number ; of 'idle' processes is greater than this ; number then some children will be killed. ; ondemand - no children are created at startup. Children will be forked when ; new requests will connect. The following parameter are used: ; pm.max_children - the maximum number of children that ; can be alive at the same time. ; pm.process_idle_timeout - The number of seconds after which ; an idle process will be killed. ; Note: This value is mandatory. pm = dynamic ; The number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'static' and the ; maximum number of child processes when pm is set to 'dynamic' or 'ondemand'. ; This value sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be ; served. Equivalent to the ApacheMaxClients directive with mpm_prefork. ; Equivalent to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment variable in the original PHP ; CGI. The below defaults are based on a server without much resources. Don't ; forget to tweak pm.* to fit your needs. ; Note: Used when pm is set to 'static', 'dynamic' or 'ondemand' ; Note: This value is mandatory. pm.max_children = 128 ; The number of child processes created on startup. ; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic' ; Default Value: min_spare_servers + (max_spare_servers - min_spare_servers) / 2 pm.start_servers = 2 ; The desired minimum number of idle server processes. ; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic' ; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic' pm.min_spare_servers = 1 ; The desired maximum number of idle server processes. ; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic' ; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic' pm.max_spare_servers = 128 ; The number of seconds after which an idle process will be killed. ; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'ondemand' ; Default Value: 10s ;pm.process_idle_timeout = 10s; ; The number of requests each child process should execute before respawning. ; This can be useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries. For ; endless request processing specify '0'. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS. ; Default Value: 0 ;pm.max_requests = 500 ; The URI to view the FPM status page. If this value is not set, no URI will be ; recognized as a status page. It shows the following informations: ; pool - the name of the pool; ; process manager - static, dynamic or ondemand; ; start time - the date and time FPM has started; ; start since - number of seconds since FPM has started; ; accepted conn - the number of request accepted by the pool; ; listen queue - the number of request in the queue of pending ; connections (see backlog in listen(2)); ; max listen queue - the maximum number of requests in the queue ; of pending connections since FPM has started; ; listen queue len - the size of the socket queue of pending connections; ; idle processes - the number of idle processes; ; active processes - the number of active processes; ; total processes - the number of idle + active processes; ; max active processes - the maximum number of active processes since FPM ; has started; ; max children reached - number of times, the process limit has been reached, ; when pm tries to start more children (works only for ; pm 'dynamic' and 'ondemand'); ; Value are updated in real time. ; Example output: ; pool: www ; process manager: static ; start time: 01/Jul/2011:17:53:49 +0200 ; start since: 62636 ; accepted conn: 190460 ; listen queue: 0 ; max listen queue: 1 ; listen queue len: 42 ; idle processes: 4 ; active processes: 11 ; total processes: 15 ; max active processes: 12 ; max children reached: 0 ; ; By default the status page output is formatted as text/plain. Passing either ; 'html', 'xml' or 'json' in the query string will return the corresponding ; output syntax. Example: ; http://www.foo.bar/status ; http://www.foo.bar/status?json ; http://www.foo.bar/status?html ; http://www.foo.bar/status?xml ; ; By default the status page only outputs short status. Passing 'full' in the ; query string will also return status for each pool process. ; Example: ; http://www.foo.bar/status?full ; http://www.foo.bar/status?json&full ; http://www.foo.bar/status?html&full ; http://www.foo.bar/status?xml&full ; The Full status returns for each process: ; pid - the PID of the process; ; state - the state of the process (Idle, Running, ...); ; start time - the date and time the process has started; ; start since - the number of seconds since the process has started; ; requests - the number of requests the process has served; ; request duration - the duration in 祍 of the requests; ; request method - the request method (GET, POST, ...); ; request URI - the request URI with the query string; ; content length - the content length of the request (only with POST); ; user - the user (PHP_AUTH_USER) (or '-' if not set); ; script - the main script called (or '-' if not set); ; last request cpu - the %cpu the last request consumed ; it's always 0 if the process is not in Idle state ; because CPU calculation is done when the request ; processing has terminated; ; last request memory - the max amount of memory the last request consumed ; it's always 0 if the process is not in Idle state ; because memory calculation is done when the request ; processing has terminated; ; If the process is in Idle state, then informations are related to the ; last request the process has served. Otherwise informations are related to ; the current request being served. ; Example output: ; ************************ ; pid: 31330 ; state: Running ; start time: 01/Jul/2011:17:53:49 +0200 ; start since: 63087 ; requests: 12808 ; request duration: 1250261 ; request method: GET ; request URI: /test_mem.php?N=10000 ; content length: 0 ; user: - ; script: /home/fat/web/docs/php/test_mem.php ; last request cpu: 0.00 ; last request memory: 0 ; ; Note: There is a real-time FPM status monitoring sample web page available ; It's available in: /usr/local/webserver/php/share/php/fpm/status.html ; ; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be ; anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it ; may conflict with a real PHP file. ; Default Value: not set ;pm.status_path = /status ; The ping URI to call the monitoring page of FPM. If this value is not set, no ; URI will be recognized as a ping page. This could be used to test from outside ; that FPM is alive and responding, or to ; - create a graph of FPM availability (rrd or such); ; - remove a server from a group if it is not responding (load balancing); ; - trigger alerts for the operating team (24/7). ; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be ; anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it ; may conflict with a real PHP file. ; Default Value: not set ;ping.path = /ping ; This directive may be used to customize the response of a ping request. The ; response is formatted as text/plain with a 200 response code. ; Default Value: pong ;ping.response = pong ; The access log file ; Default: not set ;access.log = log/$pool.access.log ; The access log format. ; The following syntax is allowed ; %%: the '%' character ; %C: %CPU used by the request ; it can accept the following format: ; - %{user}C for user CPU only ; - %{system}C for system CPU only ; - %{total}C for user + system CPU (default) ; %d: time taken to serve the request ; it can accept the following format: ; - %{seconds}d (default) ; - %{miliseconds}d ; - %{mili}d ; - %{microseconds}d ; - %{micro}d ; %e: an environment variable (same as $_ENV or $_SERVER) ; it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the env ; variable. Some exemples: ; - server specifics like: %{REQUEST_METHOD}e or %{SERVER_PROTOCOL}e ; - HTTP headers like: %{HTTP_HOST}e or %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}e ; %f: script filename ; %l: content-length of the request (for POST request only) ; %m: request method ; %M: peak of memory allocated by PHP ; it can accept the following format: ; - %{bytes}M (default) ; - %{kilobytes}M ; - %{kilo}M ; - %{megabytes}M ; - %{mega}M ; %n: pool name ; %o: ouput header ; it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the header: ; - %{Content-Type}o ; - %{X-Powered-By}o ; - %{Transfert-Encoding}o ; - .... ; %p: PID of the child that serviced the request ; %P: PID of the parent of the child that serviced the request ; %q: the query string ; %Q: the '?' character if query string exists ; %r: the request URI (without the query string, see %q and %Q) ; %R: remote IP address ; %s: status (response code) ; %t: server time the request was received ; it can accept a strftime(3) format: ; %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default) ; %T: time the log has been written (the request has finished) ; it can accept a strftime(3) format: ; %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default) ; %u: remote user ; ; Default: "%R - %u %t \"%m %r\" %s" ;access.format = %R - %u %t "%m %r%Q%q" %s %f %{mili}d %{kilo}M %C%% ; The log file for slow requests ; Default Value: not set ; Note: slowlog is mandatory if request_slowlog_timeout is set ;slowlog = log/$pool.log.slow ; The timeout for serving a single request after which a PHP backtrace will be ; dumped to the 'slowlog' file. A value of '0s' means 'off'. ; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays) ; Default Value: 0 ;request_slowlog_timeout = 0 ; The timeout for serving a single request after which the worker process will ; be killed. This option should be used when the 'max_execution_time' ini option ; does not stop script execution for some reason. A value of '0' means 'off'. ; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays) ; Default Value: 0 ;request_terminate_timeout = 0 ; Set open file descriptor rlimit. ; Default Value: system defined value ;rlimit_files = 1024 ; Set max core size rlimit. ; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0 ; Default Value: system defined value ;rlimit_core = 0 ; Chroot to this directory at the start. This value must be defined as an ; absolute path. When this value is not set, chroot is not used. ; Note: you can prefix with '$prefix' to chroot to the pool prefix or one ; of its subdirectories. If the pool prefix is not set, the global prefix ; will be used instead. ; Note: chrooting is a great security feature and should be used whenever ; possible. However, all PHP paths will be relative to the chroot ; (error_log, sessions.save_path, ...). ; Default Value: not set ;chroot = ; Chdir to this directory at the start. ; Note: relative path can be used. ; Default Value: current directory or / when chroot ;chdir = /var/www ; Redirect worker stdout and stderr into main error log. If not set, stdout and ; stderr will be redirected to /dev/null according to FastCGI specs. ; Note: on highloaded environement, this can cause some delay in the page ; process time (several ms). ; Default Value: no ;catch_workers_output = yes ; Limits the extensions of the main script FPM will allow to parse. This can ; prevent configuration mistakes on the web server side. You should only limit ; FPM to .php extensions to prevent malicious users to use other extensions to ; exectute php code. ; Note: set an empty value to allow all extensions. ; Default Value: .php ;security.limit_extensions = .php .php3 .php4 .php5 ; Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH. All $VARIABLEs are taken from ; the current environment. ; Default Value: clean env ;env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME ;env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin ;env[TMP] = /tmp ;env[TMPDIR] = /tmp ;env[TEMP] = /tmp ; Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers. These settings ; overwrite the values previously defined in the php.ini. The directives are the ; same as the PHP SAPI: ; php_value/php_flag - you can set classic ini defines which can ; be overwritten from PHP call 'ini_set'. ; php_admin_value/php_admin_flag - these directives won't be overwritten by ; PHP call 'ini_set' ; For php_*flag, valid values are on, off, 1, 0, true, false, yes or no. ; Defining 'extension' will load the corresponding shared extension from ; extension_dir. Defining 'disable_functions' or 'disable_classes' will not ; overwrite previously defined php.ini values, but will append the new value ; instead. ; Note: path INI options can be relative and will be expanded with the prefix ; (pool, global or /usr/local/webserver/php) ; Default Value: nothing is defined by default except the values in php.ini and ; specified at startup with the -d argument ;php_admin_value[sendmail_path] = /usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i -f www@my.domain.com ;php_flag[display_errors] = off ;php_admin_value[error_log] = /var/log/fpm-php.www.log ;php_admin_flag[log_errors] = on ;php_admin_value[memory_limit] = 32M [/sourcecode]    9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为2,最大进程数为128(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为www: [sourcecode language="bash"]ulimit -SHn 65535 /etc/init.d/php-fpm start [/sourcecode] 注/etc/init.d/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload。   三、安装Nginx 0.8.46   1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库: [sourcecode language="bash"] tar zxvf pcre-8.30.tar.gz cd pcre-8.30/ ./configure make && make install cd  ../ [/sourcecode]  2、安装Nginx [sourcecode language="bash"] tar zxvf nginx-1.2.0.tar.gz cd nginx-1.2.0/ ./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module make && make install cd ../ [/sourcecode]   3、创建Nginx日志目 [sourcecode language="bash"] mkdir -p /data1/logs chmod +w /data1/logs chown -R www:www /data1/logs[/sourcecode]  4、创建Nginx配置文件   ①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:   [sourcecode language="bash"] rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf [/sourcecode]  输入以下内容: [sourcecode language="bash"] user www www;</pre> &nbsp; &nbsp; worker_processes 8; &nbsp; error_log /data1/logs/nginx_error.log crit; &nbsp; pid /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid; &nbsp; #Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process. worker_rlimit_nofile 65535; &nbsp; events { use epoll; worker_connections 65535; } &nbsp; http { include mime.types; default_type application/octet-stream; &nbsp; #charset gb2312; &nbsp; server_names_hash_bucket_size 128; client_header_buffer_size 32k; large_client_header_buffers 4 32k; client_max_body_size 8m; &nbsp; sendfile on; tcp_nopush on; &nbsp; keepalive_timeout 60; &nbsp; tcp_nodelay on; &nbsp; fastcgi_connect_timeout 300; fastcgi_send_timeout 300; fastcgi_read_timeout 300; fastcgi_buffer_size 64k; fastcgi_buffers 4 64k; fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k; fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k; &nbsp; gzip on; gzip_min_length 1k; gzip_buffers 4 16k; gzip_http_version 1.0; gzip_comp_level 2; gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml; gzip_vary on; &nbsp; #limit_zone crawler $binary_remote_addr 10m; &nbsp; server { listen 80; server_name blog.94qy.com; index index.html index.htm index.php; root /data0/htdocs/blog; &nbsp; #limit_conn crawler 20; &nbsp; location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$ { #fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock; fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000; fastcgi_index index.php; include fcgi.conf; } &nbsp; location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$ { expires 30d; } &nbsp; location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$ { expires 1h; } &nbsp; log_format access '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" ' '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" ' '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for'; access_log /data1/logs/access.log access; } &nbsp; server { listen 80; server_name www.94qy.com; index index.html index.htm index.php; root /data0/htdocs/www; &nbsp; location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$ { #fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock; fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000; fastcgi_index index.php; include fcgi.conf; } &nbsp; log_format wwwlogs '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" ' '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" ' '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for'; access_log /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log wwwlogs; } &nbsp; server { listen 80; server_name status.hosts.94qy.com; &nbsp; location / { stub_status on; access_log off; } } } &nbsp; [/sourcecode]   ②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件: [sourcecode language="bash"]vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf[/sourcecode] 输入以下内容: [sourcecode language="bash"]fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1; fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx; fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string; fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method; fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type; fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri; fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri; fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root; fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol; fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr; fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port; fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr; fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port; fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name; # PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect fastcgi_param REDIRECT_STATUS 200; [/sourcecode]   5、启动Nginx [sourcecode language="bash"]ulimit -SHn 65535 /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx [/sourcecode] 注:64位系统可能会出现:/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx: error while loading shared libraries: libpcre.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory错误 从错误提示上看是缺少lib文件导致的,进一步查看   [sourcecode language="bash"] ldd $(which /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx) linux-gate.so.1 => (0x0071b000) libpthread.so.0 => /lib/libpthread.so.0 (0?0498000) libcrypt.so.1 => /lib/libcrypt.so.1 (0?0986000) libpcre.so.1 => not found libcrypto.so.6 => /lib/libcrypto.so.6 (0?0196000) libz.so.1 => /lib/libz.so.1 (0?0610000) libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x002d7000) /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x006a8000) libdl.so.2 => /lib/libdl.so.2 (0x008c3000)</pre> &nbsp; [/sourcecode] 可以看出libpcre.so.1 => not found 并没有找到,进入/lib目录中手动连接下 [sourcecode language="bash"] ln -s /usr/local/lib/libpcre.so.1 /usr/lib64/libpcre1.so.1 [/sourcecode] 然后在启动NGINX OK了 [sourcecode language="bash"] # /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx # ps -ef |grep nginx root 9539 1 0 19:06 ? 00:00:00 nginx: master process /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx www 9540 9539 0 19:06 ? 00:00:00 nginx: worker process</pre> &nbsp; [/sourcecode]   四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP [sourcecode language="bash"] chkconfig --add php-fpm chkconfig --level 345 php-fpm on vi /etc/rc.local</pre> &nbsp; [/sourcecode] 在末尾添加 [sourcecode language="bash"] ulimit -SHn 65535 /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx [/sourcecode]   五、优化Linux内核参数   [sourcecode language="bash"] vi /etc/sysctl.conf</pre> &nbsp; [/sourcecode] 在末尾添加 [sourcecode language="xml"] # Add net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536 net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 32768 net.core.somaxconn = 32768</pre> &nbsp; net.core.wmem_default = 8388608 net.core.rmem_default = 8388608 net.core.rmem_max = 16777216 net.core.wmem_max = 16777216 net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0 net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2 net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2 net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1 #net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1 net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1 net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000 net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800 #net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30 #net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120 net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65535 [/sourcecode] 使配置立即生效:   [sourcecode language="bash"]/sbin/sysctl -p</pre> &nbsp; [/sourcecode] 修改系统文件打数: [sourcecode language="bash"]vim /etc/security/limits.conf [/sourcecode] 末尾添加: [sourcecode language="bash"]* - nproc 102400 * - nofile 102400</pre> &nbsp; [/sourcecode]   六、在不停止Nginx服务的情况下平滑变更Nginx配置   1、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,请执行以下命令检查配置文件是否正确: [sourcecode language="bash"]/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t [/sourcecode]   如果屏幕显示以下两行信息,说明配置文件正确:   the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok   the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully     2、平滑重启:   ①、对于Nginx 0.8.x版本,现在平滑重启Nginx配置非常简单,执行以下命令即可: [sourcecode language="bash"] /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload [/sourcecode]   ②、对于Nginx 0.8.x之前的版本,平滑重启稍微麻烦一些,按照以下步骤进行即可。输入以下命令查看Nginx主进程号: [sourcecode language="bash"] ps -ef | grep "nginx: master process" | grep -v "grep" | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}' [/sourcecode]   屏幕显示的即为Nginx主进程号,例如:   6302   这时,执行以下命令即可使修改过的Nginx配置文件生效: [sourcecode language="bash"] kill -HUP 6302 [/sourcecode]   或者无需这么麻烦,找到Nginx的Pid文件: [sourcecode language="bash"] kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid` [/sourcecode]  七、编写每天定时切割Nginx日志的脚本   1、创建脚本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh [sourcecode language="bash"] vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh   输入以下内容: [sourcecode language="bash"] #!/bin/bash # This script run at 00:00 # The Nginx logs path logs_path="/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/" mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/ mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid` [/sourcecode]   2、设置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx访问日志 [sourcecode language="bash"] crontab -e [/sourcecode]   输入以下内容: [sourcecode language="bash"] 00 00 * * * /bin/bash /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh [/sourcecode]
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